POLITICS IN GREECE
Politics in Greece is a passionate subject. The country has been a parliamentary republic since 1975. The nominal head of state is the President of the Republic. Greece has gone around all possible forms of regime to get to Democracy again and finally. It’s not by chance!
Since the 7th sc av. J.C., Greece experienced monarchy, oligarchy,tyranny and democracy. These diets came and went. And then we see that the Greeks are deeply democratic, since ancient times. Since the Golden Age of Pericles (440 BC. JC), they realized that the power of the people is the only way to go for the prosperity of a country. Europe then followed the path of Greece from the 18th century on. Greek democracy remains the basis of any Western political regime.
THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANISATION OF STATE
The administration of the state is organized according to the decentralized system. The whole country is divided according to geographical, economic and social conditions. The country has 13 regions and 325 departments. The regions are decentralized units of the State and are managed by the Secretary General of the Region (or Periphery), who is the representative of the Government and the head of all services in the region. The administration of local affairs belongs to the agencies of the local self-government (departments and municipalities and then the prefecture -peripherie-).
Greece is now a European democratic country which tries to ensure progress and its evolution, despite the tutelage imposed on it since 2009: the European Commission, the European Central Bank and the I.M.F. To do this, it does its best to exercise a policy characterized by social justice and a policy based on democratic institutions. Since the referendum of 8 December 1974, after the dictatorship of the colonels, the majority of the Greek people (nearly 70 ) chose to abolish the monarchy in Greece (1974). And in 1975, a new institution (reworked clauses) was in place and remains valid until today. The 120 articles of the constitution constitute the supreme law of the state and all laws passed must agree to the constitution. The last article of the constitution says: We have “Compliance with the Constitutionand the laws that are in agreement with it. Dedication to the Fatherland and Democracy are the basic duty of all Greeks. Following the Constitution is in the hands of the patriotism of the Greeks, who have the right and the obligation to resist by all means against any attempt to overthrow (the country) by force.”
THE POLITICAL FORM
Greece is a parliamentary democracy with a nominal president. The basis of the political system is the domination of the Greek people. All powers come from the people, exist for the people and the state and are exercised as stipulated by the Constitution and the laws of the state. The President is elected by the Assembly (his deputies) every 5 years. He can be re-elected a second time and must be over 40 years old. The president is the supreme leader but he has no political power.
The assembly is open to the public. Members of the Assembly (deputies) are directly elected by the Greek people through the voting system and elections are held every 4 years. All Greek men and women over the age of 18 have the right to vote. The right to vote was compulsory, but it has not been for about 15 years. Returning to the assembly, it exercises legislative power through the 300 members of Parliament. The elected deputies must be Greeks over the age of 25. They can be re-elected several times. Public officials, army people and mayors cannot become mDeputs.
The deputies are from different political parties: the main political parties today are Nea Dimocratia (right-wing party) and SYRIZA (left party). The system with which the various parties obtain seats in the Assembly is called the “analog voting system”. The party with the most votes, however, is strengthened somewhat in number of seats so that it can become a majority (to 150 seats). If the 1st party is far enough away from winning 150 seats, then it will have to choose a party with seats in the Assembly in order to reach 150. Cohabitation will therefore allow it to achieve majority party status.
The Prime Minister is the one with the executive power. He is the leader of a political party. He is directly elected by the Greek people. In power, the Prime Minister chooses his ministers. The assembly’s role is, among other things, to control the Government exercising executive power. It judges the work of the government of the day by asking questions and reporting on the government’s actions and omissions. It participates in the vote of bills and the state budget.
THE DISTINCTION OF THE MAYS
As in all democratic countries, public power is organized on the principle of the distinction of powers so that there is no absolute power for the Assembly, for the Government or for the President. The judiciary is exercised by the Assembly and the President of the Republic. Executive power is exercised by the government and the president of the republic. In daily political practice, this means that the passing of laws coming from the Assembly with their publications is not possible without the signature of the President of the Republic. The judiciary is exercised by the courts whose decisions are taken on behalf of the Greek people. There are 3-degree courts: the 1st degree court, the 2nd degree tribunal and the higher courts. The Arios Pagos (Court ofCassation) verifies the correctness of each court decision. It ensures the unity of jurisprudence in its decisions.
THE RIGHTS AND DEVOIRS OF CITOYEN GREC
The constitution and laws strengthen and guarantee the rights of its citizens. Greeks are equal in the face of the law (it does not distinguish). All Greeks have the same rights and duties. They have the right to elect and be elected as deputies, prefects or mayors. They can form political parties and trade unions…. in short, they have the right to come together even to strike, to go where they want in the whole world, to choose the mode of education and to protect their land wealth as in all countries where there is the right of man. However, the Greek also has duties which are:
- it has a strong incentive to vote in municipal elections (every 7 years), regional and national (every 4 years).
- he must be aware of the social and political problems of the country. He must therefore pay his taxes and go and defend the country in case of war (the 9-month army is compulsory for all young people over the age of 18).
Greeks in Greece or elsewhere deeply love their countries and ORTHODOX RELIGION.
They are ready to defend it by sacrificing themselves. It has always moved me.
The municipal election is an important phase in the life of the island. It takes place every 5 years. Mr Miraklis KOLIAS has been Mayor of
for 3 terms now;
That’s it, I took a look at the Greek political system. What do you think? Is there a loophole somewhere in this system or are we at the pinnacle of the Democratic system?