PLATO is an ancient philosopher of the CLASSICAL GREECE,contemporary of Athenian democracy and sophists, whom he vigorously criticized. He resumed the philosophical work of some of his predecessors, including SOCRATES of which he was a pupil, as well as that of Parmenides, Heraclitus and Pythagoras, in order to develop his own thought, which explored most important fields, including metaphysics and ethics, aesthetics and politics.
He is generally regarded as one of the first Western philosophers, if not the inventor of philosophy: Western philosophy is only a series of footnotes to Plato’s dialogues.
His work, composed almost exclusively of dialogues, is rich in style and content, and produces, on many subjects, the first classical formulations of the major problems of the history of Western philosophy. Each of Plato’s dialogues is an opportunity to question a given subject, for example beauty or courage. PLATO’s thinking is not monolithic; some of his dialogues lead to philosophical apories: providing a solution to the problems posed, they are not a single and definitive answer. Theophraste says that Plato was the first by fame and genius, while being the last in the chronology. As he had devoted most of his activity to the original philosophy, he also devoted himself to appearances and approached Natural History, in which he wanted to establish two principles: one undergoing, like matter, called the universal receiver; the other acting, as a cause, which it attaches to the power of god and good.
PLATO develops a reflection on Ideas commonly called The Theory of Forms or Theory of Ideas in which the sensitive world is considered a set of realities that participate in their immutable models. The Supreme Form is, depending on the context, sometimes the Good, sometimes the Beautiful. Plato’s political philosophy is that the Just City must be built according to the model of Good in itself.
The philosophy to follow with PLATO . He resumed the philosophical work of SOCRATES but he made explicit his own thinking that approached natural history, metaphysics, ethics and politics. In Plato’s time, the Athenians finally learned to look around them: to the elements of nature that surround them. It is also with the knowledge of their past that Athenians learn to find their way on the roads of the future. Athenes remains an important city with a brilliant cultural life, but she must learn to recognize that she can become a dependent power.