The main island of Dodecanisos retains an unparalleled medieval heritage. The knights of Saint John protected the island from many conquerors and pirates, but was eventually defeated by the Ottomans led by Suleiman the Great, who attacked and sat the island with more than 100,000 soldiers. The knights of Saint John shaped the face of the old town. RODOS has a particularly rich history and it is a multicultural mosaic of classical, Gothic, Reaisance, neoclassical and Arab elements. The Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem arrived on the island, with great influence throughout the DODEKANISOS region and did a lot of fortification and administration work and built many monuments with distinctive Gothic architecture. The island was occupied from 1306 to 1522 by the knights of Saint John. then underwent Ottoman and then Italian occupation.
RODOS is the capital of the archipelago with more than 85,000 inhabitants. With 300 days of sunshine a year, it is the warmest island in Greece. Lindos was built by the Dorians, like the other two major cities of the former RODOS, KAMIROS and IALYSSOS. During the Byzantine period, the city’s Acropolis was transformed into a fortress. which was later reinforced by the Knights of the Order of St. John.
Kallithea On the east side of the island. A short distance from the , you will find one of the most beautiful and famous jewels of Rodos, Kallithea Thermal Spa.
The island is renowned for the colossus of RODOS which was erected in the Middle Ages while bronze. It was destroyed by an earthquake. It was estimated to be about 36 metres high. It is regularly rebuilt.
With 300 days of sunshine a year, Rhodes is the hottest in GREECE. The main island of DODEKANISOS retains a unique medieval heritage. Helios is the first to see the island come out of the water and finds it so beautiful that he decides to take it under his protection. Some time later, a local nymph named Rhode gave Helios seven sons and a daughter. Kerkafos, the second son, became a father of three children, three boys whose names were Kamiros, Ialissos and Lindos, who created the first three cities on the island.
According to the ship catalogue, Rodos supplied nine ships to the Aceans during the Trojan War. They are led by Elepolemus, son of Heracles. RODOS has suffered from many earthquakes in its history. Among the most important, we can note that of 227 BC. J.C. or 226 BC which destroyed the famous Colossus of Rhodes, or that of May 3, 1481, which destroyed much of the city of RODOS. In contemporary history, we remember the very important earthquake that struck the island on June 26, 1926.
More recently, RODOS was struck by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on July 15, 2008, causing minor damage to some older buildings.
Archaic Greek period
The Dorians invaded the island from the very beginning, equating the Leges and Pelasges mentioned above. The island enjoyed a period of prosperity and power from the archaic period. The ancient called the island of Atabyria, at a time when ZEUS is nicknamed Atabyrios on the island, of which he is the oldest deity. The three main cities of Rodos at that time were: Lindos on the Mediterranean coast of the island, Camiros or Kamiros and Ialyssos on the Aegean Sea. Kamiros was the first to hit his currency.
Rodos, a prosperous Greek city
In 408 or 407 BC, these three cities united to form the city-state of Rhodes, perhaps under the supervision of Hippodamos. When ALEXANDER THE GREAT in 323 BC, the island regained its autonomy by expelling its Macedonian garrison, and then maintained close commercial relations with the Egyptian Kingdom of the Ptolemy. Its economic prosperity was very important: its wines were exported to the Greek cities of Pont Euxin, as shown by many amphorae stamps.
During the Diadoque Wars, the island withstood a famous siege by Demetrios Poliorcetes in 305 BC. AD, which he commemorated by the construction of the colossus, destroyed by an earthquake in 226 BC. The end of the 3rd century BC In British Columbia and in the early 2nd century BC British Columbia was a period of apogee, with the Rhodian fleet exerting a strong influence on the Aegean Sea and the fight against piracy, especially after the erasure of the Lagids. In 220 BC, the island waged a war against Byzantis, which wanted to establish a toll on the passage of ships to the Black Sea. After the peace of Apamea, Rhodes became the main Hellenistic maritime power, dominating part of Asia Minor and the Aegean islands; This situation caused tension in her relations with Rome, of which she had been an ally during the wars against the Hellenistic kingdoms.
Earthquakes and Roman domination
RODOS declined after the end of the third Macedonian war, during which her attitude had earned her the hostility of Rome: she had to give up some of her possessions and was economically affected by the creation of the free port of Delos in 167 BC. J… In 165 BC, the treaty signed with Rome marked the end of its omnipotence, but it was above all the second earthquake of 142 BC. AD that undermined the Rhodian state. The city of Camiros in particular was destroyed and abandoned. It was rediscovered in the 19th century by Alfred Biliotti (in) and Auguste Salzmann and studied by Danish, French, English, Italian and Greek archaeologists. These excavations reveal an orientalizing culture, expressed in particular by an exuberant goldwork5, first assimilated to Phoenician Art6. Rhodes was devastated in 42 BC. BC by Cassius’ troops, for supporting Caesar. Attached to the Roman province of Asia (Asia Minor), the island passes to the Eastern Roman Empire during the partition of the Empire. It is on this island that Cicero will meet Molon, to become a Roman senator. During the first century, Paul of Tarsus evangelized the island, which became the seat of a bishop’s office.
Attacked by the Arabs under Mu’awiya in 654, it was occupied by them in 673 and used as a base during the first siege of Constantinople in 674-678. Its population was then expatriated to the mainland, in Anatolia. After the peace of 678/9 between the Greek Empire and the Umayyad caliphate, the island was returned to Byzantium, its inhabitants returned, and it was attached to the theme of the Cibyrrheotes.
After the capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204 and the dislocation of the local aristocratic Empire Leon Gabalas transformed the island into an independent state. His diplomacy is to keep the balance between VENICE and the Nicaean Empire. In 1243, his brother Jean Gabalas succeeded him. The Genoese invaded Rhodes in 1248 but were driven out by the Byzantines two years later, re-establishing provincial status. Hospital period the medieval town of RODOS with the castle of the great masters in the background. After the expulsion of the Crusaders from the Holy Land (1291), the order settled in Cyprus before conquering the island of RODOS. The Hospitallers landed at Rhodes in 1307 and completed the conquest in 1310. Rhodes became the seat of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and will be a maritime power to continue to be the bulwark of Christendom against the Saracens. They kept the island for more than two centuries, until 1522. They fortified the city, leaving the walls impressive today. In the lower part of the city of Rhodes, the Collachium, the Hospitallers built the Palace of the Grand Master and “inns”, residences organized by languages and serving Western Hospitalers. The island withstood a first siege in 1480 led by Mehmed II, before falling to the Magnificent Suleiman Turks on December 20, 1522, after a five-month siege. The Hospitallers settled after seven years of homelessness in Malta, at the invitation of Charles V. The Greek Rhodian population is placed under the protection of the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople under the system of the Ottoman Empire. Rodos, the home of the Jews of Spain. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the island, which already had Roma Jews, welcomed so many Sephardic Jews rejected from Spain, that it took the nickname “little Jerusalem”. In the 19th century, a large part of the Jewish community of Rhodian expatriates for economic reasons, especially in Anatolia. At the beginning of the 20th century, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa and the Belgian Congo attracted other emigrants, seeking a better life. Among the known descendants of these Sephardic Jews who left the island were the Belgian couturier Olivier Strelli and the Congolese politician Moses Katumbi Chapwe.
ITALY seized the island and the rest of the Dodekanisos that previously belonged to the Ottoman Empire: General Giovanni Ameglio commanded the Italian troops and met no serious resistance. The Jewish community of Rodos : epilogue during the Second World War. At its peak, the Jewish community made up one third of the island’s total population. From 1936, the Italian Fascist presence on the island became more oppressive. In 1938, fascist racial laws were enforced, but the life of the Jewish community continued without much difficulty. In 1943, British shelling began on the island, but no anti-Semitic measures have yet been imposed. Everything changed on July 18, 1944, when the Germans, who occupied the island, decided to round up all the Jews of Rodos in a barracks. The last Sephardic Jews of Rhodes were immediately expelled on 23 July 1944, for Piraeus and then Auschwitz-Birkenau9, where they were exterminated upon their arrival.
Placed under the British protectorate after the German capitulation, the island came under GREEK sovereignty in 1948.
In 1961, RODOS shared the price of Europe with Schwarzenegger. It then sees the development of an important tourism industry, favoured by the air transport industry.