THE CLASSICAL GREECE [500-300 avant JC] – The Dorians were one of the four peoples of antiquity.
Thanks to Solon’s reforms, the masterful administration of Pisistrate and the work of Clisthene, the true founder of democracy, Athens is booming while Sase, disciplined under the austere laws of Lycurgue, is a powerful warrior city . The expanding Persian Empire clashed with Greek cities.
In 490, the Athenians defeated the army of Darius, King of the Persians, in Marathon; in 480, the Greek fleet destroyed that of Xerxes, Darius’ successor, in Salamine. Meanwhile, the Spartans fought the heroic battle of thermopylae, in which Leonidas and 300 men fought against the Persian enemy with the certainty of dying to the last. In 479 BC, the Greeks triumphed over the Persians at the Battle of Platées. All these victories helped to make Athens the centre of the Greek world. The Acropolis is endowed with wonderful temples, artists create masterpieces, philosophy is flourishing with SOCRATEs and PLATO.
The city can finally consolidate democratic institutions not only exemplary for the time, but unprecedented in the history of the Western world. This is the famous century of PERICLES.
Greek democracy is establishing a tax system that tries to take into account the differences in the economic level of citizens and to give ALEXANDRE THE GREAT is only 33 years old. Today, it is hard to imagine how this young king was able, in such a short time, to conquer and unite Greece, and then to wage a campaign against the Persians that will take him to Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Persia and India. , so many countries where we still find traces of its passage and the influence of Greek civilization.
The fall began in Athens in 435 BC. J.C: The Peloponnesian War between Sparta and ATHENS, the two opposing worlds, is triggered because of the overwhelming hegemony of Athens throughout the Greek territory. The Athenians lose all battles to overthrow Sparta and after the death of PERICLES
, the capture of SICILE is a total fiasco that puts an end to Athenian glory, invincibility and pride.
SOCRATES with the Sophists movement was the only one that had an influence on the world after the death of PERICLES. He walked with his disciples through the streets and squares of Athens dressed simply and in dialogue with all. His ideas were different from those we used to hear. He spoke of logic, reflection, and consultation in order to combat the evil that never ceased to flourish with all that concerned the Athenian world. He was obviously against the expedition from Athens to Sicily… But after the occupation of the Spartans in the city and after the great lost battle of the naval fleet of Athens, in the chaos and full recession in Athens, the Athenians were looking for an emissary goat for their existing “Defeat” in every sense of the word .